Starrett Level Clean-Up

I found a Starrett level in an antique store the other day.  All of the vials were intact but the paint was starting to come off in spots.  I decided to take it apart to fix the paint….and break it.

The vials in this level are held in place by Plaster of Paris from what others have said on line.  This makes sense as it hardens quickly but not so quick that you can’t adjust the vials to read correctly.

I soaked the level in water to soften the Plaster of Paris and was able to pick bits of it out with some dental tools.

The big vial on top came out pretty easily as it was the most accessible.  The two smaller vials had plaster on top and bottom of them.  I removed the plaster on top of them and then gently turned them back and forth to remove them figuring the plaster on bottom had softened.  Unknown to me at the time, I also broke the small viles open.  It turns out that the fragile end that was pinched together to seal the vial was on the bottom and I broke the tip of it off.  Yay.  I didn’t realize this until later when I looked at one of the small vials and thought “Hmm, it used to have a smaller bubble.”  In the pic below you can see the broken tips.

Oblivious to what I’d done, I worked on removing the paint with some spray on Jesco paint remover.  It’s fast and effective. 

Here’s what I ended up with after stripping the paint.  Most of it is gone.

I taped the ground edges off and painted it. 

Once the paint was dry, I moved on to reinstalling the vials.  I needed a level surface to set the level on to set the vials.  To do this, I pulled out my small granite block and machinist level which is more sensitive than the one I’m working on.  I grabbed three bolts and nuts to use as adjusting feet for the block by putting a nut on each bolt.   Then I laid them out in a triangle and set the block on them.  The feet were adjusted until the block was level in both directions.

I installed the top vial pretty easily and was able to get it to read accurately.  I ended up using some drywall hole patch in a squeeze tube which made it easy to apply.

About this time I had my “Ah ha” moment when I realized I’d broken the two smaller vials.  I looked around online but couldn’t find any replacement vials that were the same size.  I’m sure Starrett would sell me some but the vials would probably cost more than the level.  I started to think about how I could fix the vials.  Some searching around online said than light petroleum spirits are usually used to fill vials.  Mineral Spirits would work then.  That left me with a couple more problems: how to fill it and how to seal it.

At the factory it appears they sealed the ends by pinching the glass.  I can see myself screwing that up and decided try to find an adhesive to seal it.  The substance would have to be impervious to mineral spirits.  A little searching lead me to JB Weld.  I tried that out and ran into another problem.  As the JB Weld was drying a little hole would appear in it.  It seems that the mineral spirits were evaporating and pushing through the JB Weld.  I knew the mineral spirits would evaporate, I just figured the JB Weld would be thick enough to not let it through.  Lesson learned.  Now I need something impervious to mineral spirits that sets up really quick.  I settled on 1 minute epoxy…which according to the instructions takes 5 minutes to harden.  Why?  I don’t know.  Anyways, epoxy seems to have done the trick and sealed the vials.  I’d place a drop on the end and then move it around slightly if I thought I saw a hole.  Shortly, it had hardened enough not to be a problem.

The other problem I had was how to fill the vials through the tiny holes in them.  Surface tension would keep the mineral spirits from flowing in.  So, I decided to suck it in instead.  I made a fancy vacuum chamber seen below.  Onto the hose I hooked one of those small hand vacuums and proceeded to pull enough air out to fill the vial.

Once the vial was full, I removed some of the mineral spirits by tapping the open end on some cardboard.  Each tap left a small drop and eventually I got the bubble to the appropriate size.  After that I quickly sealed the ends with epoxy.

The vials are slightly curved which means the hole they sit in allows the vial to move some.  I  put some drywall patch on the end of the vial inserted it and then squeezed more patch on top of the vial.  I used this sophisticated mechanism to hold the vial in place while the patch setup.

After that I reinstalled the smalls screws that cover the small vials and was done. 

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Automotive Tool Tray

I ran across a portable automotive tool tray while looking around online.  What is it you ask?  It’s an adjustable height, rolling, tray that is used to put mechanic’s tools on while working on a vehicle.  I thought one would be nice because I have a tendency to place tools around the engine bay while working.  Later on I have to gather them all up which can lead to a small mystery if I’ve missed one.  I read some reviews on it and there were some bad ones.  Some reviews said that it was flimsy and the welds were poor.  I said to myself, “I can do better.  I can made a sturdy tool tray with bad welds!”  And I did.

Since I was making the tool tray myself I wanted it to have a height range that accommodated both my car and truck.  Originally, I wanted to make the tray portion fold down but as I was designing it I found it wasn’t possible with the height range I needed.  Here’s a picture of what I made.  It adjusts between 34.5″ to 52.5″ and can be set at 3″ intervals between.

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I started by working on the tray.  It’s constructed out of 1″ x 1/8″ thick angle and measures 21″ x 14.5″ which allowed me to get all of the pieces out of a 72″ long stick.  The 1″ height will allow me to put a board inside for the tools to rest on.  I mitered the corners and welded it together.  I recommend welding on the bottom of the tray so that the board will rest on the frame instead of rocking on the welds.  Alternatively, you can weld on the inside and grind them down.

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Most of the rest of the moble tool tray is made out of 1″ square tubing that I got from Gill.  I used my overgrown hacksaw to cut it down to size.

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The bottom of the mobile tool tray has the center section offset so that more of the tray overhangs the engine bay.  I didn’t want to to move it all the way to the edge so that I could put some bracing on it.  Here I’ve got the base of it clamped down and ready to weld.

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After welding the base I started on the vertical piece that the top part slides in.  It’s made out of 1-1/4″ square tubing.  To position the top part I thought about using a pin but decided it would be easier to weld a nut to one side.  A through pin or bolt is preferable to using a bolt that would just press against the sliding tube as it greatly reduces the chance of the top sliding down under weight.

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After finishing with the 1-1/4″ tubing it was back to the little welding table to attach it.  I welded it on and then braced it with additional scrap material.

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To support the top I used another piece of 1″ square tubing that would slide inside of the 1-1/4″ piece.  I positioned the first hole at 6″ from one end and then drilled additional holes every 3″.

tt8The inside of the 1-1/4″ tubing was a larger than the outside of 1″ tubing.  To compensate for this, I welded a small plate on the bottom back side of the 1″ tubing.  This is the location that presses against the inside of the larger tubing and will keep the top assembly from rattling around.

tt8aWith that done, it was back to the tray to start welding  the bracing that would connect it to the vertical 1″ square tubing.  I cut the bracing a little shorter than the dimensions of the top and welded it into place.

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Finally, I could put the pieces together and test it.  Here it is at the lowest height.

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Now it is raise to the max height holding my jack to prove to myself that it won’t fall apart with some weight on it.  I’d planned to weld some casters to the tool tray but instead decided to use some stem casters.  It would have been easier to drill the holes for the stems before assembly but I was able to get them drilled with my drill press after this pic.

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Next up was painting in my custom fresh air paint booth.  I sanded it all with a flap disk and put on a coat of primer from a spray can.  After the primer had dried, I put on a top coat and watched the bugs jump into the paint.  Yay…I guess they like red.

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I mentioned above about welding a nut on for a bolt to keep the top half of the tool tray in place. While I was waiting for the paint to dry I turned a piece to use instead of a bolt.  Other than my knurling not being deep enough it works as expected.

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Once the paint had dried a couple days, I installed the casters and put it back together.

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I grabbed a scrap piece of 1/2″ plywood to use as my work surface.  It is held in there by its own weight and can be replaced in the future if needed.

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If you’d like to make a copy of the mobile tool tray, here’s a small drawing that lists the basic dimensions.  I don’t have any of the sheet metal bracing or lower 1-1/4″ tube support pictured here but their size isn’t critical.  You can use whatever size suits you.

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Swapping Drawers on the 44″ Harbor Freight Tool Cabinet

Thanks to some Christmas money, I was able to pick up a new tool cabinet.  This is one of Harbor Freight’s well regarded tool cabinets.  I like the cabinet a lot but wasn’t a fan of the drawer arrangement.  I ran across a post on Garage Journal that detailed how to swap the drawers.  So, I decided to do the same.

The tool cabinet is sold in several pieces.  I have the top and bottom pieces.  I’m not a fan of the deep drawers on the top and would prefer to have shallow ones.  The plan is to take four shallow drawers from the bottom and swap them with the two deep drawers on the top.

Before starting I’d like to point out that swapping the drawers, as I’ll show, will result in losing the ability to lock the swapped drawers.  There’s a way around this but I never lock my drawers anyways.

Anyways, here’s what I started with.

 

tb1The first step is to remove the drawers that you’ll be swapping.  This is done by rotating the plastic lever on the drawer slides shown below.  This disconnects the two pieces of the slides and allows the drawer to be removed.

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The deep drawers on the bottom have two sets of slides (four total) per drawer.  The deep drawers on top only have one set of slides (2 slides) per drawer with the sides located at the top of the drawers.  So, we’ll need to remove the slide halves that are third up from the bottom on the bottom cabinet to be placed in the top cabinet.  The slide halves have tabs that fit into slots that bear the weight and use a single rivet to keep the slides in place.  This rivet must be drilled out to remove the slide half.  Once the rivet has been removed, the slide half will rotate up and can then be pulled out.

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Part of what makes this swap possible is that the holes for the slides have already been cut into the top box as shown below.  This allows the slide halves from below to be easily dropped into the top box.

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The rivet holes are a hair under 3/16″ and will need to be drilled to accept a 3/16″ diameter 1/8″ rivet.

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With the enlarged hole, the slide halves can be riveted into place.   The rest of the slide halves are moved in the same way.  Using only the available drawer slides will result in the deep drawers being moved only having one set of slides.  This means that the top deep drawers will have a lower weight capacity than the bottom deep drawers.  This isn’t a problem for me as am storing lighter objects in the top deep drawers.  I’ve heard that replacement drawer slides can be ordered from Harbor Freight from the larger tool cabinets if you want double slides for the top deep drawers.tb6   Before the bottom drawers can be put into the top, the locking mechanisms must be removed from them.  As shown below, the bottom drawers have a silver piece riveted in while the top drawers have a small section punched out.  The silver locking piece can be removed by drilling out the rivets which hold it into place.  The drawers from the top, with the punched out locking section, will go into the lower cabinet with no modifications required.

tb7Finally, with all of the slide halves moved and locking mechanisms removed, the drawers can be put into their new spots.  This results in a drawer configuration that I find more useful.

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If someone wants to swap the drawers and retain the locking mechanisms it can be done.  This would require modifying the drawers permanently unlike what I’ve done.

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Estate Sale Air Ratchet

I picked up a Blue-Point air ratchet from an estate sale a couple weekends ago for $5.  I knew it had some kind of issue because the throttle lever laid flat against the body as opposed to sitting away from it like normal.  For $5 I decided to pick it up.

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Once I got home, I hooked the air ratchet up to my compressor and the ratchet immediately started spinning. It spun up but didn’t really go that fast.  I put a socket on it and used it to drive a nut down.  The air ratchet got the nut pretty tight which told me it was in good condition.  I looked over the air ratchet to try to find a part number but couldn’t. Odd. Reviewing it again, I noticed a small hole and stud on the “neck” of the air ratchet where a tag may have once gone.  I also found a Snap On date code on the end of the air ratchet in the shape of a “M” missing a leg.  You can see it in the picture above.  With all the info, I headed in to look around online.

I headed to Snap-On’s website, as they’re the owners of Blue-Point, and discovered that Blue-Point still makes an air ratchet that looks very similar to mine.  The current model is the AT700F.  They also had a parts diagram which would be useful soon.  I looked up the date code and it showed my air ratchet was made in 1985.

I decided to disassemble the air ratchet to clean and figure out what was wrong.  It came apart pretty easily.  There’s a large nut in the middle that separates the air ratchet into two pieces: head and body.  The body was disassembled by removing the planetary gear assembly, threaded ring, and drive assembly.  The ring was very tight and required the use of some large Channellocks with some rubber to keep from damaging the threads.  I also disassembled the trigger mechanism and immediately found the problem.  The valve was missing.  The lever pushes down a pin which should push the valve down allowing air to flow.  On the other side of the valve is a spring that pushes the valve back closed as the lever is released.

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The part I’m calling the drive assembly contains the rotor and vanes.  I separated the rotor from the top bearing and found it to be pretty clean inside as can be seen below. The rotor has vanes which loosely fit in the rotor allowing them to slide in and out.  The rotor fits inside the cylinder which has a hole in it that is off center.  As a result, at one point around the cylinder the vane is pushed completely into the rotor and 180 degrees away a vane is fully out.  Thus, as air comes in it presses against the vanes spinning the rotor and driving the tool.

I cleaned the drive assembly with some degreaser and oiled it before reassembly.  The rest of the parts were looked over, cleaned, and oiled or greased as was appropriate.  I don’t have any pictures of it but I also disassembled the head.  There’s a snap ring on the bottom around the ratchet assembly that can be removed to take it apart.

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I looked around further online and found a description of the missing piece.  It was described as a T shaped part.  That makes sense.  Snap On, as always, has parts you can buy to repair their tools.  My valve was available from them for $4.95 which would almost double the cost of my air ratchet.  Can’t have that.  So, I did some measuring and came up with a design for a replacement valve.  I whipped it out on the lathe pretty quickly.  The metal stock I had which was closest to the max diameter of the part didn’t turn that well and left a bit of a rough finish.  I had a small peg from parting the piece off and ended up leaving it on.  It doesn’t interfere with the valve functioning correctly and simplifies installing and removing the valve.

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Below is the throttle assembly.  The pin can be seen inside the hole in the bottom of the air ratchet.

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I put it all back together and now have an air ratchet that doesn’t run all the time.  Yay.  I tested the air ratchet tightening and loosening some nuts and bolts.  It seems to operate as expected and has good power.  I also found out from the specs online that the air ratchet’s free speed is 165 rpm which explains why it seemed to run so slowly.  The next day it was great to have the air ratchet while removing the numerous bolts holding on my transmission pan.

 

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Tap Wrench Clean Up

Here’s a quick tool restoration.  I found a tap wrench at a pawn shop the other day for $3.  It was pretty rusty and wouldn’t move.  This isn’t a bad thing when it comes to price.  It’s a Morse No. 15 and about 19″ long.  Good quality tap wrenches are worth cleaning up.  New good quality tap wrenches are expensive and cheap ones are pieces of junk with soft jaws.

Here’s what I started out with.

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It turned out that with a little bit more force the movable handle popped loose. To disassemble it I first removed the set screw which allows the stationary jaw to be removed.  Next, the movable handle was rotated to remove the other jaw.  Finally, the movable handle was unscrewed out of the body of the wrench.  Not much to these.

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I decided to use some Evaprorust to clean the tap wrench up.  It works well and can be reused several times.  The only downside is the relatively high price of it though it is pretty much effortless.  The parts soaked for about 4 hours and after washing looked rust free.

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I buffed it a small amount with the buffer and then oiled it.

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This was a super easy clean up and goes to show that an old rusty tool can be given a second life without much effort.

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Drive By Wire Throttle Body

My car has a GM 3800 Series II V6 motor that has a so called drive by wire system which is fairly common on vehicles today.  Drive by wire systems measure the position of the accelerator pedal. This reading is then sent to the car’s computer which sends signals to the throttle body’s motor which moves the throttle body’s blade.  The computer monitors the position of the blade via the appropriately named throttle position sensor which is also in the throttle body.   Prior to these systems a steel cable ran from the accelerator pedal to the throttle body to move the blade.  I should probably add that the throttle body meters the amount of air going into a gas motor.

The system in my car has been reliable for over 200k miles. Lately, though, I’ve been getting an intermittent trouble code and the car would drop into a reduced power mode.  The code indicated that there was disagreement between the 1st and 2nd throttle position sensors.  In other words, the car’s computer wasn’t sure where the throttle blade was and was unhappy.  I looked into replacing the throttle position sensor and quickly became unhappy myself.

I’ve replaced throttle position sensors before.  They’re pretty cheap at around $20-$30.  Remove two screws, swap sensors, put the screws back on and you’re done.  Well, on this car, the throttle position sensors cannot be replaced separately.  It turns out that you have to buy a whole new throttle body assembly because it is a “non-serviceable sealed system” or some BS like that.  The dealership wanted $800 for it and online parts warehouses wanted $360. No, thanks.  I found a used one from a junkyard car with 44k online and purchased it.  I swapped them out and all seems to be good again.

Since the old throttle body is now a paper weight I figured I’d look into what makes it so special.  Here’s my throttle body.  Air goes into the top, through the mesh, and then hits the blade inside the throttle body.  It this exits the throttle body into the motor.  The sensor in the middle of the screen is the MAF (mass air flow) which tells the computer how much air is going into the engine.  One the lower right is where the connector for the throttle body motor and throttle position sensors go.  Note that the black plastic sides are riveted on so you can’t mess with it.

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A drill made quick work of the rivets and the cover was easily removed.  Here’s the throttle position sensor module.  The shaft that the throttle blade is attached to goes through the middle of the throttle position sensor module.  Note the throttle position sensor module is secured by regular screws.  More on it in a minute.

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Under the cover on the opposite side, is the actuating motor and a bit of gearing.  There’s also a coil spring that closes the throttle blade mechanically.

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The idler gear rides on the shaft and is easily removed.  Then just two Phillips screws hold the DC motor in.  Thats pretty much all there is to it electronically.      tb4

Let’s take a closer look at the throttle position sensor module.  The throttle position sensors are completely enclosed and connect to the motor through a plastic connector.  So, it is easily capable of being replaced.  Grr…

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The back has a little panel that has been plastic welded on.  The weld can be scrapped off easily allowing access to the inside.

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Inside is pretty much what I expected.  A throttle position sensor is a potentiometer which is just a variable resistor.  A potentiometer has a resistive area and a piece of metal, called a wiper, moves along this area.  The total resistance of the area from end to end is a constant resistance.  The wiper can be moved which changes the resistance between the ends and the wiper.  The amount of resistance affects the voltage out of the potentiometer.   Anywhere you turn a knob on something electronic, that doesn’t have distinct positions, you’re probably dealing with a potentiometer.  In the picture below the resistive areas are around the inner walls and the wipers are on the middle piece.

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Here’s a close up of the resistive areas.  There’s two separate throttle position sensors in the module with one on each side of the inside of the module.  The resistive areas (the grayish areas) for each throttle position sensor are split in two connected by the wiper.  If you look closely, you can see three stripes inside the wide bands of resistive material.  This is where the wiper fingers have worn through the resistive material.

tb8The center piece holds the wipers and is rotated by the throttle blade’s shaft.  The separate fingers on each wiper add redundancy to the sensor

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With the throttle position module removed, I was able to check it with my multimeter.  I connected one probe to the wiper pin and another to the end pin with the multimeter set to measure resistance.  Next, I slowly rotated the wiper while watching the multimeter.  I expected and saw the resistance linearly increasing.  At one spot the meter showed infinite resistance indicating that there was a break in the resistive material due to the wiper scratching it off over time.  This was my problem.  The sensors would agree for most of the time until one sensor hit this area and sent bad date to the computer.  The computer noted that the voltage value didn’t match and set the error code.  This check could have been performed without disassembling the throttle body.

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Roman Scutum: Part Duo

In my last post on making my scutum I’d finished making the metal boss.  My next step was to determine what design I wanted on the front of my shield.  As mentioned before, only one shield has made it to modern times and we have to look towards stone carvings and written word for information.  From what I’ve gathered, each legion had its own design and it seems possible that the smaller cohorts in each legion might have had different designs as well.  This would be similar to the different patches found in modern military units.  So, once again there’s a lot of freedom in what could go on a scutum.  What’s clear is that the designs had meaning to them.  Some told of a legion’s history via a laurel wreath or animal.  Others might tell where a legion had served.

I chose to use a design similar to the one found in Trajan’s Column (see last post).  Legio XX uses the design off of Trajan’s column and has provided templates for the design.  The design is the winged thunderbolt of the Roman god Jupiter (Zeus in Greek).  The part that looks like a unicorn’s horn is the actual thunderbolt while the arrow tipped lines are lightning.  I’m assuming wings indicate the flying thunderbolt but eagles were also very important to the Romans.  My design is the same as the one on Trajan’s column with the addition of the curving lighting to keep from copying it exactly.  If you think the winged thunderbolt has fallen out of favor since 2000 years ago take a look at the USAF emblem.

I printed the templates from Legio XX and used them as a basis for making my own larger poster board templates with the exception of the wing.   I used it at the provided size.  From there I taped on and traced the templates.  The positions of the templates were measured to aide in getting them in the right spot.  Then I traced them in the other three positions.  I also put in some horizontal lightning arrows in the middle of the shield whose template is not included in the pic below.

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I finally worked out how I wanted to attach the boss which I’d been turning over in my head for a while.  I drilled the boss to use as a template for locating holes in the scutum.  I didn’t want to mess up the design once I’d painted it or mess up the shield I’d spent a while painting while drilling.  The boss is mild steel and drilled pretty easy using the drill press.  It was then placed on the scutum and one hole was drilled.  A bolt was inserted to hold the boss in position so the other holes could be drilled without the boss shifting postion.

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Up next was painting.  Lots of hand painting with white paint.  Multiple coats of course.    SC22

And then more painting but this time with yellow paint.  Several coats again.  Then I meticulously outlined it all in black.  Have I mentioned I don’t like painting?  Oh well, after working several evenings the painting was finally finished.

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Next, comes brass work.  From what I’ve read online, some scutums were sewn together at the edges.  Some had decorative brass rims.  Others had heavier rims to better withstand attacks in what I’m guessing was wrought iron or steel.  I chose to go with the brass rim.  I used 0.012″ thick brass shim stock to form my rim.  As delivered the brass is hardened and requires annealing to work.  I annealed my brass a piece at a time with a propane weed burner.  Fortunately, it can be quenched instantly to cool down without causing any issues or hardening.  It does work harden though which means as you bend the brass it gets tougher to bend.  So, you get to work it, anneal it, work it some more, anneal, repeating as needed.

My rim is constructed of eight pieces: four corners, top/bottom, two sides.  Once again I made templates to mark out the design before cutting the brass with snips.

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I don’t have a metal brake because I don’t know where I’d put it.  Instead, I made a simple form, clamped it in the vise, and bent the brass with a small ball peen hammer.  The piece was then flipped and hammered to create the C shape I need.

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After a bit I had the four corners.  Of course they don’t look like corners yet…

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To bend the corner pieces to shape, I made a form out of some plastic that I cut to the correct shape and thickness of my scutum.  I marked the bottom where the corner piece should go on the plastic and clamped it in place.  Then, with light taps, I bent the brass.   As you can see, the brass doesn’t magically bend smoothly.  The extra metal on the sides bows out in waves. Then it was off to anneal it again to be safe for the next step.

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To get rid of the big waves on the sides we want to create a bunch of small ones.  To do this the corners are put back on the form and the waves are hammered on which pushes them down creating smaller waves next to them.  As you’re doing this, you can feel the brass work hardening as it gets harder to move requiring annealing again.  I completed about five iterations of hammering and annealing before the waves tucked down nicely.  Sometimes the brass will fold over which requires prying it back up to get it to lay nicely.  Below, you can see the progress making the corner pieces.

 

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The top and bottom pieces were cut out of annealed brass using a template.  Again, a larger form was used to hold the brass so it could be hammered into a C shape.

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Here’s one of the top/bottom pieces.  I’ve left one end to be finished once I’d shaped it and test fit it with the corners.

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The top and bottom edges of the scutum are curved which requires more shaping.  I clamped one end and coerced it into position using clamps and hammer.  Once again, waves in the brass are created on the short side which were tapped down as before with the corners.  Luckily, they don’t have to be flattened as much as the corner pieces.

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Finally, I cut the side pieces which was easy since they don’t require curving.  Here’s a picture of all the brass rim pieces after shaping.

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The annealing and handling of the brass had tarnished it which isn’t the look I want.  To polish it, I tried some Brasso and quickly discovered that wasn’t the approach I wanted to take.  Instead, I made a mixture of 50% vinegar and 50% water for the brass to soak in for a couple hours.  After that they were nice and shiny.  To install the brass rim permanently, small brass plated tacks were used.  I clamped each piece in place, drilled through the tabs partially into the wood, and then tapped in a tack.  I cut down the tacks so that they wouldn’t come out of the other side.  This left clean tack heads on both sides.  An alternate approach would be to drill all the way through and clench the tacks on the back.  Clenching seemed harder to do and easier to mess up which is why I didn’t go this route.

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It’s thought that the boss was traditionally held on with rivets or clenched nails.  I wanted to go with rivets but wanted to be able to remove the boss if needed.  So, I decided to fake the look of a rivet with a carriage bolt.  To make the carriage bolt not look like a carriage bolt, I filed off the marking and then hammered on the head which I hope looks more like a rivet.  I also filed the holes in the boss square so that the carriage bolts would sit flush on the boss.

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To hold the carriage bolts in place I used some uncoated steel square nuts.  This kind of ruins the period look that the rest of the scutum has but I’m ok with it since it’s on the back.  If it ever bothers me too much I may make some kind of domed cap to go over the nuts.  If you’re curious about the string, it is used to hang my scutum on the wall.

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Here are some picture of the finished scutum.

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That’s the end of the scutum build.  This project took longer than I thought it would but was a fun build.  It was my first time working with brass like this (as opposed to on the lathe) and blacksmithing the boss was new too.  All in all, it was fun and I believe it turned out well.  It’s certainly the best (and only) scutum I’ve seen in person!

Vade en pace”

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